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Transformation of the old model of public participation in the design
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First, the current transformation of the old city status and problems of public participation Public participation in accordance with the S · R · Arnstein by "the public participation ladder" can be divided into three levels of the form 8, the lowest level is "false (non) participation," the two forms, namely "operational participation" and "educational participation", which is the lowest form of "operational participation", that some government agencies to develop a good plan in advance, and then let the public to accept the program; the second level is the "symbolic participation", including three forms: "informative participation "and" consultative participation "and" limited participation "; the highest level is the" substantial participation ", the three forms, namely" cooperative engagement "," representative participation "and" participation in decision-making " which is the highest form of "participation in decision-making", that public approval of the program of direct management control rights. "The public participation ladder" theory, the transformation process for measuring the success of public participation to provide a benchmark. At this stage, the public transformation of old cities in China, "handling in" less, but "educational participation" still exists, which are "false (non) participation" category. "Symbolic participation" than "leave (non) participation", the public participation has been strengthened, which "informed participation" of public participation is the main form of urban transformation, which in fact is nothing but a " conversational democracy. " Belong to the implementation of the publicity system, "informed participation", the public up to the supervisory role in the implementation, but this has a substantial effect on whether the status monitor is still a big problem. Executive Order government led approach to urban transformation of the public more and more suited to the current complicated and changing social environment. Main features: First, the lack of public participation in the system security. Transformation of old cities in our public participation in the legal, institutional and organizational structure is not perfect, resulting in the process of public participation in the actual lack of atmosphere, channels and rights mechanisms, therefore, the actual public participation is not high, in effect is not ideal. Second, public participation in the knowledge capacity is insufficient. At present, public participation in urban renewal in the sense of relatively strong, but because of varying levels of public education, especially the lack of expertise, the result is very difficult to make constructive public opinion, then public opinion can not be decision-makers effectively adopted, so that the public can not very well participate in the reconstruction. Third, lack of public participation. Public Participation in Urban Renewal at this stage only at the stage, intermittent, rather than full participation. Only at the project stage and phase of the program announcement, the Government through advocacy, publicity and other measures for the public to understand that urban renewal program, but the program design and implementation of the project, the feedback stage, the public is excluded. Especially in the more important implementation phase, the public is right to express no interest. Second, public participation in the whole process of transformation of the old model design To change the public be excluded from the decision-making beyond the status quo, to ask us to build a new public participation in the whole process of transformation of the old worm model (Figure 1). In this new decision-making model, public participation is to implement the project, program design, implementation and evaluation of each process. In the urban renewal project stage, the transformation of the masses to listen to their views, consult the wishes of residents transformation, only the number of households in the agreed reform only after more than a certain percentage of the next stage of work. This stage, the public can, through advocacy, training, and questionnaires to participate in the transformation. In program design phase, the public can be special seminars, public hearings, public voting, the media and the publicity, etc. to their own ideas and suggestions with the government, experts and developers to communicate, to participate in the program's specific design process, express their interest demands. Implementation phase of the project is the participation of the public participation part of the more important stage, because the current renovation of the old city to the public participation in the program design phase is over, and the first and second phase of the program reached the implementation phase may be subject to developers in disguise implemented, resulting in the public interest is violated. Public participation in this phase mainly through training, publicity, public oversight, supervision and the establishment of the public on behalf of third-party groups to participate in the specific implementation process in order to better monitor retrofit the original implementation of the program, the public interest. The final stage in the transformation stage is assessment, public participation is mainly through third-party assessment, stakeholder satisfaction survey implementation. Old city is a multi-faceted, multi-level participatory process, in this process, the public interest demands required in the transformation of every aspect of decision-making can be fully reflected. Public participation should always be run through the whole service concept to go to the government. Zheng Fu overall value in achieving the transformation process, should establish an information sharing, knowledge transfer and knowledge exchange platform, through the public participation program design, implementation, monitoring, management and feedback, so that they have liked the full expression of their own interest demands, to avoid appearing in the transformation of the phenomenon of public interest is trampled. Third, improve the whole process of public participation in urban renewal proposals 1. The introduction of democratic consultation mechanism will be urban renewal process The introduction of democracy in the transformation of old cities is mainly embodied in the principle of consultation and public participation and transparency on the related procedures. Embodied in the decision-making process, land acquisition and housing demolition and so on. Project approval procedures and administrative rulings fair and correct, land acquisition is in the public interest, house demolition compensation is reasonable, you can glimpse from the value orientation of different interest groups and fairness. Among them, the interests of relocated residents need to be fully guaranteed, the placement of residential housing for needy families need effective security, national interests, the state-owned assets and public finance can not be damaged, embezzlement, etc., will become the measure of the success of urban renewal ruler. 2. Improve the system and legal protection Certain laws and regulations, through the whole process of giving the public the right to participate in urban renewal, to determine matters of public policy in the transformation of the former, decisions, participation in decision-making after the procedure, clear procedures for public participation, content, form and time, such as the Old City transformation of the public participation in the target, status, nature, content, process, members of the organization, powers and participatory approach to make it clear that the legal system to protect through the whole process of public participation in urban renewal can be achieved. In addition, local governments should also be based on the region's history and cultural identity, development of specific systems with their own development and measures. 3. Strengthen professional training for public Based on current knowledge of the weakness of the public to pay attention to urban planning and urban redevelopment expertise in education, on the one hand can be in different schools and universities, public education in this regard, on the other hand through television, newspapers, Internet and other media expertise in the popularity of the general public to promote public participation in the formation of the concept, especially in the transformation of the region in need of government organizations, professionals, members of the public on their professional knowledge and training to enhance their ability to participate so that they can use our expertise to participate in the transformation in order to fully protect their own interests. 4. Establishment of mechanisms for third-party involvement The whole process of introduction of third-party participation, coordination and supervision mode, you can invite the strong credibility of NPC deputies and CPPCC members, community workers and the legal profession to participate, to the demolition, the demolition and the relevant administrative departments supervise the maintenance legitimate interests of the relevant subjects to provide advice or assistance.

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